Institutional Development


Most of the assignments in this sector have been undertaken while executing projects in the hydropower, irrigation, water supply and sanitation, transportation, integrated watershed management and other infrastructure development projects. Projects undertaken by MULTI in this sector can be categorized as;

  1. Experience in Development Research
  2. Experience with Community Participation
  3. Institutional Strengthening/Resource Mobilization
  4. Experience in Training Related Activitie

Study on Solid Waste Management in Kathmandu Valley (KV), JICA, 2004

MULTI Disciplinary Consultants (P) Ltd. was entrusted to undertake the Surveys on Household Behavior and Attitude on SWM, Establishments and NGOs/ CBOs activities in SWM in Kathmandu Valley. The specific objective /scope of the Household Behavior and Attitude on SWM including Establishments and NGOs/CBOs activities in SWM in Kathmandu Valley are as follows:

  • to identify the current practices and attitudes regarding SWM among the local residents and the local establishments in five Municipalities;
  • to grasp and review the current activities related to SWM in which NGOs/ CBOs have been involved; and
  • to provide information to help formulating draft Action Plan and strategies for effective SWM.

Socio-economic Baseline Study and Preparation of M&E Plan for Bardibas-Jaleshwor, Janakpur-Dhanushadham Feeder Roads Project, 1998 HMGN/UNCDF (NEP/89/CO3), Mahotari and Danusha district

Bardibas-Jaleshwor (43 km) and Janakpur-Dhanushadham (16 km) Feeder Roads Project was part of HMG progrmme to improve the farm to market road under Agricultural Perspective Plan (APP). It was envisaged that the project will improve the access from farm to market and by that will uplift the Socio-Economics condition in the rural areas. MULTI Disciplianry Consultants (P) Ltd. was entrusted to carryout baseline socio-economic survey in the Zone of Influences of the two feeder roads and also for the identification of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) matching the objectives of the project and to prepare a Monitoring and Evaluation Plan suitable to use in project time frame using the Logical Framework Approach.

Accordingly, MULTI was involved for Collection of primary and secondary socio-economic information from identified sources, Preparation of Monitoring and Evaluation Plan adopting Logical Framework Approach, Preparation of checklist and questionnaires for solicitation of information on KPI, Preparation comprehensive strategy for socio-economic baseline survey including PRA, RRA, focus group discussion, Assessment of zone of influence, sample method and sampling size (10% of total household i.e. 945 household for JD Road and 1297 households for BJ road covering the 80 selected

wards of 38 VDCs), Training of enumerators, field survey and monitoring of quality of data collected, Data Processing and Analysis were undertaken through a computer program developed in FOX PRO and SPSS and Report on Risk indicators, study outputs, and survey findings.

Baseline Survey and Need Assessment Study of Jhimruk Industrial Development Centre, JIDCO/BPC/UMN, 1999

Pyuthan district comprises of 49 VDCs, of which 9 VDCs namely- Nayagaun, Ramdi, Khaira, Dhubang, Raspurkot, Bijuli, Pakala, Baraula and Dangbang which were considered as most affected by the Jhimruk Hydro-power and Rural Electrification Project have been taken as study area. The study includes formal Household Survey of 345 households and PRA surveys of the same area. The basic objective of the study is to assess training needs and other supports needed for the development of Jhimruk Hydro-power Project area. The central theme is to identify the areas of assistance needed for community development in the project area. The study has the following specific objectives.

  • Examine socio-economic condition of people with special attention to those affected by the power project;
  • Identify the condition of existing small / cottage industries, micro-hydro and other enterprises;
  • Analyze availability and consumption status of various energy sources;
  • Identify the raw material resources and possibilities of establishing micro enterprises; and
  • Assess the need of the community and identify the area of assistance needed for community development and recommend the type of training and other support that would be needed for the overall area development.

Socio-economic Baseline Survey of Parbat and Kaski District; JICA; 1996

MULTI was entrusted by JICA to conduct socio-economic baseline survey in the five model areas of Parbat and Kaski districts. A total of 8,140 households belonging to 307 wards of 43 VDCs in Parbat and Kaski districts were surveyed. The survey also included interview with a total of 18,300 family members belonging to these households. Besides, 729 key informants along with several agencies and their officials were interviewed for the administrative survey; leading to the preparation of wardwise and VDC wise profile of the concerned wards and VDCs. An estimated 129,000 people of the study area incorporating the two districts were expected to be directly influenced through this study. The main objectives of this baseline survey were to

  • Clarify the current socio-economic conditions and their characteristics in the VDCs and wards
  • Identify the relationship between socio-economic factors and environmental issues
  • Provide opportunities for local people to consider various problems related to their lives, environment and their solution
  • Establish baseline data to measure the effects of the long term assistance being provided by the JICA projects in the study area.

The field survey was commenced on January 9, 1996 and completed on May 25, 1996. The field survey team included 52 enumerators, research assistants and supervisors. Data Processing and Analysis were undertaken through a computer program developed in FOX PRO and SPSS. Reporting were completed by July, 1996. The method adopted for the survey consisted of following techniques.

  • Administrative Survey
  • Intensive Household Survey.
  • Survey of Household Family Members

Procedural Assessment of WUA Formation, DOI, 1997

The Study intended to assess the WUA formation process adopted by different projects in irrigation sector and identify major reasons for such variations. The study was carried out in qualitative manner, dealing with case to case, considering major tenets concerning the WUA farmer participation, resource generation, management transfer, organizational behavior, structuralism and its suitability. All together nine irrigation projects were selected as case studies including SMIP, BLGWP, MIP, RJKIP, ILC and ISP.

Inventory Study of Farmer Developed Technologies on Field Preparation, Water Allocation and Distribution System, 1996, RTDP/IDM/DOI

This study was undertaken to inventory the farmer-developed technologies in the country. For this purposes, total 26 FMIS projects were selected from different geographical areas such as 13 projects in hills, 3 projects in inner Terai and 10 projects are in terai The work involved sampling representative FMIS, site visit to familiar with the system, farmers’ institutions, irrigation and agricultural practices and compile inventory data.

Baseline Studies of Chandra Canal Irrigation System, IMD/DOI, 1997

The objective of the study was to carry out necessary investigations to identity the benchmark status of CCIS command area (900ha) in terms of its (1) Agriculture System, (2) Physical System, (3) Institutional Aspects and, (4) Economic Aspects; so as to monitor and evaluate the impact of management transfer of this project to water users in future. The study also sought identification of renovation works required prior to handing over the scheme to WUA, as required by the HMG Irrigation Policy, 1997. Primary and secondary data on these indicators were collected and compiled for analysis, monitoring and evaluation. The primary data were collected through PRA, RRA and key informant survey along with visual survey of the canal alignment and the command area. Household survey (approx. 400 households) was also undertaken for the collection of agricultural and Socio-economic data with cost of agricultural production and inputs.

Impact Evaluation of Seti Zone Integrated Rural Development Project, HMGN/ADB, July to Dec. 1995

MULTI in association with NEW ERA was employed by MLD/HMGN for (a) socio-economic impact evaluation (b) assessment on achievement of project’s targets and goals (c) review project concept and design, and (d) review project implementation and management of this ADB financed integrated development project covering five districts of the Seti zone. This project consisted of four components namely i) transport infrastructure; ii) deep tubewell irrigation; iii) agricultural support facilities; and iv) rural development support facilities. The overall objective of the project was to increase food and cash crop production and provide rural employment opportunities. The methodology adopted for this study consisted of the following;

  • Review of relevant project documents
  • Key Informant Interview
  • Rapid Rural Appraisal
  • Sample Household Survey (General Survey-1260 households; Component Specific- 390 households)
  • Data were entered into the computer using FOXPRO and transferred to SPSS files for further analysis.

Socio-economic Study of East Rapti Irrigation Project, ADB/HMG, 1986

MULTI was assigned for the socio-economic benchmark survey of the project. The study was a part of feasibility study undertaken by Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Japan. The work included random sample household survey of 506 households in the project area, data collection which included demography, land use, irrigation system, agriculture support system, energy consumption pattern, market facilities, price of farm input and output, and social infrastructure. The collected data were entered into computer using dBase software and processed through a statistical package.

Informal Sector of the Construction Industry in Nepal, ILO, 2001

The goal of this study was set to gain a better understanding of the construction laborers in Nepal by exploring the existing construction system and practices, including roles of various participants and propose measures leading to establishment of good labour practice. Through primary surveys covering various parts of Nepal an effort has been made to investigate work histories, patterns of skill acquisition, employment relationship, mobility and to document the conditions of work as well as worker’s understanding and aspirations of their life. The study has also attempted to review the legislation and institutions related to the construction industry, and has identified several stakeholders for participation in the social dialogue. Several issues have been raised for discussions in the social dialogues that may help introduce good labour practice leading towards improved workmanship and better quality of works in Nepal.

Asian Development Bank RETA 6031: REG; Promoting Effective Water Management Policies and Programs, Study of Water in Asian Cities, Contract No. COCS/02-842, Study on Small Scale Independent Private Water Providers in Kathmandu City, 2002-03.

Under TA 6031-REG Promoting Effective Water Management Policies and Programs, the ADB conducted a study on water in Asian cities covering 8 cities namely Cebu, Delhi, Dhaka, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta, Kathmandu, Shanghai and Ulan Batar. The overall objective of the Study was to establish relationships between the socio-economic characteristics of households and their choice of water provider. Thus quantitative (household questionnaire surveys) and qualitative surveys (focus group discussions) were undertaken and Water Service Profile at each city level was developed. The WSP provided insight into the coverage of Water Utility, the scope and scale of different level of service provided by SSIPWP as well as socio-economic profile of consumers, their reaction to different water contexts in the city and their perception towards water providers. Subsequently, a detail study on Private Water Tanker service in Kathmandu was conducted as a case study that included characteristics of services (price, quality, regularity, type, method of payment etc.), SSIPWP profile (ownership structure, employment, market share, turnover, financing sources, etc.) and SSPWP business environment (financial environment, relationship with authorities, investment risks, taxes etc.).

Rani, Jamara & Kulariya (RJK) Irrigation Project(IBRD/DOI) 1993-94

MULTI conducted the feasibility and detailed design study of this 70 years old FMIS in the Far-Western Region of Nepal. Altogether 65 professional man-months were involved in the design of new permanent intake on Karnali river, new feeder canal, improvement of existing canals and drainage system, socio-economic survey (435 households), agriculture studies and extension services detail soil, geological, hydro-geological studies and environmental impact assessment. All pertinent activities were conducted in close consultation with the WUAs and as per their consent and approval.

Bagmati Command Area Development Project, ADB/HMG, 1992

The main objective of the study was to prepare a feasibility report on command area development, covering the gross area of 48,700 ha (Stage-I). The project was undertaken in association with Nippon Koei and Sir Williams Halcrow & Partners. In addition to detailed topographical survey of 600 ha sample area, MULTI provided consulting services for the Project Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation Study to continuously assess the impact of project on production and socioeconomic conditions of the beneficiaries. Specific measures for poverty alleviation and enhancement of the role of women in the project area were also identified. The study comprised of 1400 randomly selected household survey, interview with water users’ groups, agriculture and socio-economic studies, cost and returns for major crops and energy use pattern study. The methodology adopted for this survey included:

  • Preparation of list of water users/data collection;
  • Key Informants Interview
  • Random Household Survey
  • Joint Participatory Discussions
  • Pre-WUG Formation
  • Field Training
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal

Sunsari Morang Irrigation Project Stage – III; IDA/DOI; 1994-95

MULTI was engaged as the local associates of Nippon Koei; Japan for the feasibility study along with detail design for the project implementation based upon Joint Participatory Approach. The study included detail design for sample area of 1350 ha, which involves formation of 50 WUAs; one for each water course serving 28 ha (net). WUAs were actively involved in discussing the canal alignments for survey including joint walk-through and committed themselves to share the construction cost and management of the system including O & M along with water management activities. Field training of Association Organizers and beneficiary farmers as well as tri-patriate agreement (Executing Agency, WUA & Consultant) were concluded for the sustainable institutional development. Moreover, socio-economic and agricultural surveys were conducted for around 2500 households.

Facilitating Capacity Building and Participation Activities Project, ADB/M, 1997-1998

The Fourth Water Supply and Sanitation Project considers communities as the centerpiece and lessons learnt from Third Water Supply Sanitation Project indicate that successful community involvement in every stage of project cycle is essential to ensure sustainability. Realising the gravity of issue and acknowledging that empowerment of WUSCS and legal framework to sustain it could not be satisfactorily taken up during project formulation of FWSSP, the ADB decided to assign this task to a separate small technical assistance team MULTI was entrusted to depute Community Development Specialist and Researcher. The study consisted of documentation of WUSCS perception about their vital role, determination of the representatives of WUSCS, determination of the role between WUSCS and VDCs/DDCs, assignment of WUSC empowerment, and research of the participatory process undertaken through key informant interview of beneficiary groups, government authority, NGO’s etc and their relevance to the sector in overall terms.

Irrigation Sub-sector Data – Base (CIWEC), 1983

MULTI provided consulting services to the Canadian International Water and Energy Consultant in data gathering exercise as the first stage in the long-term undertaking to be dealt later on by the proposed planning unit of DIHM. The job included; reviewed existing data base and formulated framework for the new data base network, updating the project information base and interview with personnel associated with the irrigation projects and related works.

Infrastructure Improvement Works in Gorkha Conservation Area, DOA/ADB, 1993-1996

The objective of the consulting survices was to provide detailed design, tender documents and construction supervision for the improvement of infrastructural works in the Gorkha Conservation Area so as to support the tourism industry. The area around tourist trail from bus park to tindhara square via thulo angan was concentrated for works such as stone pavement, water supply and sanitation including toilets, storm water and sullage drains, steps improvement, soft landscaping and street lighting. To promote community participation, association of benificiaries were formed and encouraged to discuss various alternatives for the proposed works. Following these discussions during the design phase, the most favourite solution was proposed to be adopted. The benificiary’s committee took active part during the construction phase and were involved in all aspect of construction works.

Infrastructure Improvement Works in Swayambhu Area of Kathmandu DOA/GTZ, 1993-1996

Based on the recommendation of the master plan (also prepared by MULTI), the project aims to improve the water supply, sanitation, surface dressing, and solid waste collection and disposal, surface cleansing, surface drain, surface paving and rehabilitation of ponds and wells. The TOR included formation of viable and sustainable institutional arrangement who will take full responsibility of operation and maintenance of the completed construction, O&M costs and cost recovery mechanism and resource mobilization. MULTI was involved in the formation of Federation of Swayambhu Management and Conservation (FSMC) comprising of 15 existing local organizations. An user’s group under FSMC and having representation of member organizations was established and were involved in the identification of improvement works, conceptual and detailed design along with construction activities.

Sankhu Development Project, GTZ, 1986

MULTI was entrusted by GTZ to undertake studies designed to develop Sankhu, a historical and cultural town located 18 km from the Capital, as a service center and hinterland to Kathmandu city by strengthening local institutional capabilities for self reliant development. The services provided by MULTI included:

  • Collection of existing socio-economic parameters of the Sankhu Area;—Identification of infrastructural improvement works;
  • Project planning overview and operational planning;
  • Institution building to create user groups, operationalization of service center and formation of Sankhu Development Committee;
  • Mobilization of local resources;
  • Instituting decentralized planning and implementation

Corporate Planning & Management Information System for Butwal Power Company (BPC) – 1995

MULTI prepared a Corporate Plan and Management Information system for BPC, which included information on historic financial records, personnel, and budget etc. New accounting coding system were developed. The system facilitates early assessment of financial indicators for BPC

Corporate Planning & Management Information System for Nepal Water Supply Corporation (NWSC), 1994

MULTI prepared a corporate Plan and Management Information System for NWSC which included information on historic financial records, personnel and budget. Account coding system were also developed.

Store Improvement and Procurement, Nepal Water Supply Corporation, 1994 – 1995

All the inventory of the NWSC store were coded for easy computer entry and retrieval. A program was prepared to facilitate easy data entry and retrieval of the different items in the store for efficient stock control system.

Project Preparation Studies and Management Support of Third Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project; (ADB/DWSS)

Project Preparation Studies; 1991: MULTI was directly engaged by ADB to prepare implementation proposals covering 128 potential sub-projects including people’s participation (particularly by women and NGOs) and financing arrangements with the use of revolving funds and rural credit systems

Management Support; 1993-1997: MULTI is engaged by the Department of Water Supply (DWSS) to provide project management advisory services to improve water supply and sanitation in the rural areas of Eastern, Mid-western and Far-western Regions of Nepal. The job involves review of feasibility study, appraisal and selection of sub-projects for implementation, quality control, pre-construction, construction and post-construction management, institutional development, staff training and Bank disbursement schedule preparation. This project has so far successfully involved beneficiary groups from the project conception to O&M phase

Management Support and Service Improvement for NWSC, Kathmandu, (UNDP/World Bank),1987-1988

Included preparation of 15 year comprehensive development plan for NWSC, institutional strengthening, identification of component need, qualification, costing, annual investment, programming, development of work program and prioritization. The work involved provision of management, operational and training support to NWSC including distribution system remodelling, rehabilitation and network extension works, devising water billing and reporting systems, improvement of water quality by identifying ways to reduce iron content, leakage and wastage reduction and rehabilitation of the sources as well as the network including machineries.

Institutional Management and Tariff Study for Bharatpur Water Supply Project, (UDLE/GTZ), 1994

Bharatpur municipality is fast growing as a trade and industrial center. MULTI was entrusted to conduct a study for the development of an organizational and management set up for the operation and maintenance of the system and recommend the level, structure, and colleection of tariff for sustainable operation and maintenance and cost recovery for capital investment.

Institutional Management and Tariff Study for Dhulikhel Town Water Supply Project, (Dhulikhel Municipality), 1989-1990

The work involved review of the past practices of water supply management by NWSC and DWSC including the tariff structure vis-a-vis the existing institution settings at Dhulikhel and recommendation of a tariff structure for water supply and sanitation.

Preparation of AO’s Training Manual (IMD/DOI/USAID), 1995

The main purpose of HMG’s Irrigation Policy 2049 is to adopt uniform procedure for the involvement of peoples participation in all stages of irrigation development. This requires catalyst input of an institutional development personnel such as Association Organizers, who are assigned to facilitate formation of WUA’s as required by the policy. MULTI was entrusted by the HRDTB (DOI) to prepare a training manual for AO’s which could facilitate comprehensive training to produce skilled man power capable of implementing the policy effectively. The manual covered (i) Pre-training, (ii) Programme development, (iii) Programme implementation, (iv) Field assignment and (v) Monitoring evaluation and feed back phases of training. A total of 39 numbers of Session Guides, 39 Session Plans and 28 Handout Notes were prepared together with other pertinent training materials.

MULTI’s experience with community participation and institutional strengthening exercise are also noteworthy in the following projects:

Transportation Sector

  • Traffic Accident Costing Study, (DOR/ODA), 1996: The study included survey of hospitals, insurance companies, transport operators and servicing garages.
  • Vehicular Traffic Management in the Historic Core Area of Patan City, BDP, -Kathmandu-Hetauda Ropeway Project, MOWT, 1987
  • Maintenance Necessities & Approach for Urban Roads & Pavements at Bhaktapur City, GTZ, 1984
  • Feasibility Study of Trolley Bus at Ring Road, Kathmandu, MOWT, 1990
  • Socio-economic Study of Bardibas-Jaleshwor and Janakpur-Dhanushadham Feeder Roads Project, UNCDF/DOR, Mahottari and Dhanusha districts, 1998

Energy and Electrification

  • Energy Consumption Survey of Western Development Region, WECS, 1992
    Baitadi Electrification Village Profile, NEA, 1990
  • Socio-economic Justification for Rural Electrification, Dhading district, DDP/GTZ, 1990
  • Power Absorption Survey, Nepal, WECS, 1989
  • Baseline Survey and Need Assessment Study of nine VDCs influenced by Jhimruk
  • Hydro Power Project, Phyuthan district, 1999